African prince dating site

African prince dating site

african prince dating site

When it comes to life in East London's Tower Hamlets, Tracey Gordon longs for something more. But she's got a funny way of going after her dreams. Chewing Gum: Season 2 (Trailer) Tracey's back for a second season in Tower Hamlets. And she still doesn't know what . An advance-fee scam is a form of fraud and one of the most common types of confidence dcdancesport.info scam typically involves promising the victim a significant share of a large sum of money, in return for a small up-front payment, which the fraudster requires in order to obtain the large sum. dcdancesport.info is a dating site for the Adult Baby Diaper Lovers Community. We are proud to say that the site was made for us and by us. We offer the the slickest platform offering instant messaging directly on the site.

The s saw an escalation of Cold War intrigues, as newly independent Angola and Mozambique aligned themselves with the Soviet Union, and the West and South Africa sought to contain Soviet influence by supporting friendly regimes or insurgency movements. In Rhodesia , Soviet and Chinese-backed leftist guerrillas of the Zimbabwe Patriotic Front waged a brutal guerrilla war against the country's white government. There was a major famine in Ethiopia , when hundreds of thousands of people starved. Some claimed that Marxist economic policies made the situation worse.

Another notable tragic event is the Rwandan Genocide in which an estimated , people were murdered. AIDS in post-colonial Africa has also been a prevalent issue. In the 21st century, however, the number of armed conflicts in Africa has steadily declined. For instance, the civil war in Angola came to an end in after nearly 30 years. This coincided with many countries abandoning communist-style command economies and opening up for market reforms. The improved stability and economic reforms have led to a great increase in foreign investment into many African nations, mainly from China , [76] which has spurred quick economic growth in many countries, seemingly ending decades of stagnation and decline.

Several African economies are among the world's fastest growing as of [update]. A significant part of this growth, which is sometimes referred to as Africa Rising , can also be attributed to the facilitated diffusion of information technologies and specifically the mobile telephone. Africa is the largest of the three great southward projections from the largest landmass of the Earth. Africa's largest country is Algeria , and its smallest country is Seychelles , an archipelago off the east coast.

The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian. It includes much of the continent of Africa, as well as oceanic crust which lies between the continent and various surrounding ocean ridges. The Afrotropic ecozone and the Saharo-Arabian desert to its north unite the region biogeographically, and the Afro-Asiatic language family unites the north linguistically. The climate of Africa ranges from tropical to subarctic on its highest peaks.

Its northern half is primarily desert , or arid , while its central and southern areas contain both savanna plains and dense jungle rainforest regions.

Advance-fee scam - Wikipedia


In between, there is a convergence, where vegetation patterns such as sahel and steppe dominate. Africa boasts perhaps the world's largest combination of density and "range of freedom" of wild animal populations and diversity, with wild populations of large carnivores such as lions , hyenas , and cheetahs and herbivores such as buffalo , elephants , camels , and giraffes ranging freely on primarily open non-private plains.

It is also home to a variety of "jungle" animals including snakes and primates and aquatic life such as crocodiles and amphibians. In addition, Africa has the largest number of megafauna species, as it was least affected by the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. Africa has over 3, protected areas , with marine protected areas, 50 biosphere reserves, and 80 wetlands reserves. Significant habitat destruction, increases in human population and poaching are reducing Africa's biological diversity and arable land.

Human encroachment, civil unrest and the introduction of non-native species threaten biodiversity in Africa. This has been exacerbated by administrative problems, inadequate personnel and funding problems. There are clear signs of increased networking among African organizations and states. For example, in the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo former Zaire , rather than rich, non-African countries intervening, neighbouring African countries became involved see also Second Congo War.

Since the conflict began in , the estimated death toll has reached 5 million. The union was formed, with Addis Ababa , Ethiopia , as its headquarters, on 26 June There is a policy in effect to decentralize the African Federation's institutions so that they are shared by all the states. The African Union, not to be confused with the AU Commission, is formed by the Constitutive Act of the African Union , which aims to transform the African Economic Community , a federated commonwealth, into a state under established international conventions.

The African Union has a parliamentary government, known as the African Union Government , consisting of legislative, judicial and executive organs. The government of the AU consists of all-union federal , regional, state, and municipal authorities, as well as hundreds of institutions, that together manage the day-to-day affairs of the institution. Political associations such as the African Union offer hope for greater co-operation and peace between the continent's many countries. Extensive human rights abuses still occur in several parts of Africa, often under the oversight of the state.

Most of such violations occur for political reasons, often as a side effect of civil war. Although it has abundant natural resources , Africa remains the world's poorest and most underdeveloped continent, the result of a variety of causes that may include corrupt governments that have often committed serious human rights violations , failed central planning , high levels of illiteracy , lack of access to foreign capital, and frequent tribal and military conflict ranging from guerrilla warfare to genocide. According to the United Nations ' Human Development Report in , the bottom 24 ranked nations st to th were all African.

Poverty , illiteracy, malnutrition and inadequate water supply and sanitation, as well as poor health, affect a large proportion of the people who reside in the African continent. The average poor person in sub-Saharan Africa is estimated to live on only 70 cents per day, and was poorer in than in , [] indicating increasing poverty in some areas. Some of it is attributed to unsuccessful economic liberalization programmes spearheaded by foreign companies and governments, but other studies have cited bad domestic government policies more than external factors. Africa is now at risk of being in debt once again, particularly in Sub-Saharan African countries.

The last debt crisis in was resolved with help from the heavily indebted poor countries scheme HIPC. About ten years after the debt crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa was resolved, Zambia fell back into dept. A small reason was due to the fall in copper prices in , but the bigger reason was that a large amount of the money Zambia borrowed was wasted or pocketed by the elite. Some countries experienced still higher growth rates, notably Angola , Sudan and Equatorial Guinea , all of which had recently begun extracting their petroleum reserves or had expanded their oil extraction capacity.

In a recently published analysis based on World Values Survey data, the Austrian political scientist Arno Tausch maintained that several African countries, most notably Ghana , perform quite well on scales of mass support for democracy and the market economy. Tausch's global value comparison based on the World Values Survey derived the following factor analytical scales: The non-violent and law-abiding society 2. Climate of personal non-violence 4. Trust in institutions 5. Happiness, good health 6. No redistributive religious fundamentalism 7. Accepting the market 8. Involvement in politics Optimism and engagement No welfare mentality, acceptancy of the Calvinist work ethics.

The spread in the performance of African countries with complete data, Tausch concluded "is really amazing". While one should be especially hopeful about the development of future democracy and the market economy in Ghana , the article suggests pessimistic tendencies for Egypt and Algeria , and especially for Africa's leading economy, South Africa. Tausch also maintains that the certain recent optimism, corresponding to economic and human rights data, emerging from Africa, is reflected in the development of a civil society.

In fact, the food security crisis of which took place on the heels of the global financial crisis pushed million people into food insecurity. In recent years, the People's Republic of China has built increasingly stronger ties with African nations and is Africa's largest trading partner. A Harvard University study led by professor Calestous Juma showed that Africa could feed itself by making the transition from importer to self-sufficiency. Africa is starting to focus on agricultural innovation as its new engine for regional trade and prosperity.

He also announced a new programme named Trade Africa, designed to boost trade within the continent as well as between Africa and the US. Africa's population has rapidly increased over the last 40 years, and consequently, it is relatively young. In some African states, more than half the population is under 25 years of age. Africa's total population surpassing other continents is fairly recent; African population surpassed Europe in the s, while the Americas was overtaken sometime around the year ; Africa's rapid population growth is expected to overtake the only two nations currently larger than its population, at roughly the same time — India and China's 1.

Speakers of Bantu languages part of the Niger—Congo family are the majority in southern, central and southeast Africa. Bantu-speaking Africans also predominate in Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, and are found in parts of southern Cameroon. In the Kalahari Desert of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as the Bushmen also "San", closely related to, but distinct from " Hottentots " have long been present. The San are physically distinct from other Africans and are the indigenous people of southern Africa.

Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous peoples of central Africa. The peoples of West Africa primarily speak Niger—Congo languages , belonging mostly to its non-Bantu branches, though some Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic speaking groups are also found. In the central Sahara, Mandinka or Mande groups are most significant. Chadic-speaking groups, including the Hausa , are found in more northerly parts of the region nearest to the Sahara, and Nilo-Saharan communities, such as the Songhai , Kanuri and Zarma , are found in the eastern parts of West Africa bordering Central Africa.

The peoples of North Africa consist of three main indigenous groups: Berbers in the northwest, Egyptians in the northeast, and Nilo-Saharan-speaking peoples in the east. Significant Berber communities remain within Morocco and Algeria in the 21st century, while, to a lesser extent, Berber speakers are also present in some regions of Tunisia and Libya. In Mauritania, there is a small but near-extinct Berber community in the north and Niger—Congo-speaking peoples in the south, though in both regions Arabic and Arab culture predominates. In Sudan, although Arabic and Arab culture predominate, it is mostly inhabited by groups that originally spoke Nilo-Saharan, such as the Nubians, Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa, who, over the centuries, have variously intermixed with migrants from the Arabian peninsula.

In the Horn of Africa , some Ethiopian and Eritrean groups like the Amhara and Tigrayans , collectively known as Habesha speak languages from the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family, while the Oromo and Somali speak languages from the Cushitic branch of Afro-Asiatic. Prior to the decolonization movements of the post- World War II era, Europeans were represented in every part of Africa. European colonization also brought sizable groups of Asians , particularly from the Indian subcontinent , to British colonies. Large Indian communities are found in South Africa, and smaller ones are present in Kenya, Tanzania, and some other southern and southeast African countries.

The large Indian community in Uganda was expelled by the dictator Idi Amin in , though many have since returned. The islands in the Indian Ocean are also populated primarily by people of Asian origin, often mixed with Africans and Europeans. The Malagasy people of Madagascar are an Austronesian people , but those along the coast are generally mixed with Bantu, Arab, Indian and European origins. Malay and Indian ancestries are also important components in the group of people known in South Africa as Cape Coloureds people with origins in two or more races and continents.

During the 20th century, small but economically important communities of Lebanese and Chinese [76] have also developed in the larger coastal cities of West and East Africa , respectively. Africa is the most multilingual continent in the world, and it is not rare for individuals to fluently speak not only multiple African languages, but one or more European ones as well. There are four major language families indigenous to Africa:.

Following the end of colonialism , nearly all African countries adopted official languages that originated outside the continent, although several countries also granted legal recognition to indigenous languages such as Swahili , Yoruba , Igbo and Hausa. In numerous countries, English and French see African French are used for communication in the public sphere such as government, commerce, education and the media. Arabic , Portuguese , Afrikaans and Spanish are examples of languages that trace their origin to outside of Africa, and that are used by millions of Africans today, both in the public and private spheres.

Italian is spoken by some in former Italian colonies in Africa. German is spoken in Namibia , as it was a former German protectorate. Some aspects of traditional African cultures have become less practised in recent years as a result of neglect and suppression by colonial and post-colonial regimes. For example, African customs were discouraged, and African languages were prohibited in mission schools. Obidoh Freeborn posits that colonialism is one element that has created the character of modern African art. Cole, "The precipitous alterations in the power structure wrought by colonialism were quickly followed by drastic iconographic changes in the art.

Abiola Irele and Simon Gikandi comment that the current identity of African literature had its genesis in the "traumatic encounter between Africa and Europe. There is now a resurgence in the attempts to rediscover and revalue African traditional cultures, under such movements as the African Renaissance , led by Thabo Mbeki , Afrocentrism , led by a group of scholars, including Molefi Asante , as well as the increasing recognition of traditional spiritualism through decriminalization of Vodou and other forms of spirituality. African art and architecture reflect the diversity of African cultures.

The region's oldest known beads were made from Nassarius shells and worn as personal ornaments 72, years ago. The stone ruins of Great Zimbabwe are also noteworthy for their architecture, as are the monolithic churches at Lalibela , Ethiopia, such as the Church of Saint George. Egypt has long been a cultural focus of the Arab world , while remembrance of the rhythms of sub-Saharan Africa, in particular West Africa, was transmitted through the Atlantic slave trade to modern samba , blues , jazz , reggae , hip hop , and rock.

The s through the s saw a conglomeration of these various styles with the popularization of Afrobeat and Highlife music. Modern music of the continent includes the highly complex choral singing of southern Africa and the dance rhythms of the musical genre of soukous , dominated by the music of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Indigenous musical and dance traditions of Africa are maintained by oral traditions, and they are distinct from the music and dance styles of North Africa and Southern Africa. Arab influences are visible in North African music and dance and, in Southern Africa, Western influences are apparent due to colonization.

Fifty-four African countries have football soccer teams in the Confederation of African Football. Egypt has won the African Cup seven times, and a record-making three times in a row. South Africa hosted the World Cup tournament , becoming the first African country to do so. Cricket is popular in some African nations. The three countries jointly hosted the Cricket World Cup. Namibia is the other African country to have played in a World Cup. Morocco in northern Africa has also hosted the Morocco Cup , but the national team has never qualified for a major tournament.

Rugby is a popular sport in South Africa, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. Africans profess a wide variety of religious beliefs, and statistics on religious affiliation are difficult to come by since they are often a sensitive topic for governments with mixed religious populations. There is also a minority of people in Africa who are irreligious. The countries in this table are categorized according to the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations, and data included are per sources in cross-referenced articles.

Where they differ, provisos are clearly indicated. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Africa disambiguation. The second largest and second most-populous continent, mostly in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres. Recent African origin of modern humans. Arab slave trade and Atlantic slave trade. Afrotropic ecozone and Palearctic ecozone. List of political parties in Africa by country. Economy of the African Union. Central and Eastern Sudanese. List of regions of Africa and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa. Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Retrieved 10 September United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. Retrieved 15 December University of Utah News Release: Archived from the original on Retrieved 24 November Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 18 May The Biblical Archaeologist , Vol. Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary Transl. Science in the Medieval World. University of Texas Press. Travels in the Arabian Desert: Ancient Africa , University of California Press. Journeys from Past to Present. Past, Present and Future.

The Fates of Human Societies. Oxford Atlas of World History. Oxford University Press, , pp. African-Americans in Search of an Ancient Past. Archived from the original on 28 May A world history of art 7th ed. Retrieved 23 July American Journal of Human Genetics. BBC News — Africa. A History of Slavery in Africa. Archived from the original on 10 June The History of France. According to a U. State Department report, over fifteen persons were murdered between and in Nigeria after following through on advance-fee frauds.

There are many variations on the most common stories, and also many variations on the way the scam works. Some of the more commonly seen variants involve employment scams , lottery scams , online sales and rentals, and romance scams. Many scams involve online sales, such as those advertised on websites such as Craigslist and eBay , or property rental. This article cannot list every known and future type of advanced fee fraud or scheme; only some major types are described. Additional examples may be available in the external links section at the end of this article.

The scammer sends a letter with a falsified company logo. The job offer usually indicates exceptional salary and benefits, and requests that the victim needs a "work permit" for working in the country, and includes the address of a fake "government official" to contact. The "government official" then proceeds to fleece the victim by extracting fees from the unsuspecting user for the work permit and other fees. A variant of the job scam recruits freelancers seeking work, such as editing or translation, then requires some advance payment before assignments are offered.

Many legitimate or at least fully registered companies work on a similar basis, using this method as their primary source of earnings. Some modelling and escort agencies tell applicants that they have a number of clients lined up, but that they require some sort of prior "registration fee", usually paid in by an untraceable method, e. The scammer contacts the victim to interest them in a "work-at-home" opportunity, or asks them to cash a check or money order that for some reason cannot be redeemed locally.

In one cover story, the perpetrator of the scam wishes the victim to work as a "mystery shopper", evaluating the service provided by MoneyGram or Western Union locations within major retailers such as Wal-Mart. Later the check is not honoured and the bank debits the victim's account. Schemes based solely on check cashing usually offer only a small part of the check's total amount, with the assurance that many more checks will follow; if the victim buys into the scam and cashes all the checks, the scammer can steal a lot in a very short time.

More sophisticated scams advertise jobs with real companies and offer lucrative salaries and conditions with the fraudsters pretending to be recruitment agents. A bogus telephone or online interview may take place and after some time the applicant is informed that the job is theirs. To secure the job they are instructed to send money for their work visa or travel costs to the agent, or to a bogus travel agent who works on the scammer's behalf. No matter what the variation, they always involve the job seeker sending them or their agent money, credit card or bank account details. Instead, their personal information is harvested during the application process and then sold to third parties for a profit, or used for identity theft.

Another form of employment scam involves making people receive a fake "interview" where they are told the benefits of the company. The attendees are then made to assist to a conference where a scammer will use elaborate manipulation techniques to convince the attendees to purchase products, in a similar manner to the catalog merchant business model, as a hiring requisite. Quite often, the company lacks any form of the physical catalog to help them sell products e.

When "given" the job, the individual is then asked to promote the scam job offer on their own. They are also made to work the company unpaid as a form of "training". These scammers do internet searches on various companies to obtain hiring managers' names. They then advertise job offers on Job Search sites. The job hunter will then apply for the position with a resume. The person applying for the position will get a message almost instantly from a common email account such as "Yahoo", asking for credentials.

The scammer will sometimes request that the victim has an "Instant Messenger" chat to obtain more information. The scammer guarantees employment, usually through automated computer programs that have a certain algorithm, with "canned responses" in broken English. At the "Instant Messenger" stage it is usually too late and the process has already begun. If the victim questions the integrity of the process, the computer program may call them a "scammer" and can be quite vulgar. Quite often the fraudulent negotiables are still sent to the address on the victim's resume, even after the fake online rant.

The scammer sends the victim fraudulent negotiables, assuring them that they get to keep part of the funds. They will expect the victim to send the remainder to various parties that they specify, under the guise that they are legitimate business contacts. This is a money laundering scheme, as the victim becomes a pawn in the filtering process. The process continues until the victim catches on, or even gets caught. As the representative, the job involves receiving cash payments and depositing payments received from "customers" into one's account and remitting the rest to the overseas business bank account.

This is essentially money laundering. The lottery scam involves fake notices of lottery wins, although the intended victim has not entered the lottery. In addition to harvesting this information, the scammer then notifies the victim that releasing the funds requires some small fee insurance, registration, or shipping. Once the victim sends the fee, the scammer invents another fee. The fake check technique described above is also used. Fake or stolen checks, representing a part payment of the winnings, being sent; then a fee, smaller than the amount received, is requested.

The bank receiving the bad check eventually reclaims the funds from the victim. In a variant of the lottery scam appeared in the United States: Many scams involve the purchase of goods and services via classified advertisements, especially on sites like Craigslist , eBay , or Gumtree. These typically involve the scammer contacting the seller of a particular good or service via telephone or email expressing interest in the item. They will typically then send a fake check written for an amount greater than the asking price, asking the seller to send the difference to an alternate address, usually by money order or Western Union.

A seller eager to sell a particular product may not wait for the check to clear, and when the bad check bounces, the funds wired have already been lost. Some scammers advertise phony academic conferences in exotic or international locations, complete with fake websites, scheduled agendas and advertising experts in a particular field that will be presenting there. They offer to pay the airfare of the participants, but not the hotel accommodations.

They will extract money from the victims when they attempt to reserve their accommodations in a non-existent hotel. They usually state they are not yet in the country and wish to secure accommodations prior to arriving. Once the terms are negotiated, a forged check is forwarded for a greater amount than negotiated, and the fraudster asks the landlord to wire some of the money back. This is a variation of the online sales scam where high-value, scarce pets are advertised as bait on online advertising websites using little real seller verification like Craigslist , Gumtree , and JunkMail.

The pet may either be advertised as being for-sale or up for adoption. Typically the pet is advertised on online advertising pages complete with photographs taken from various sources such as real advertisements, blogs or wherever an image can be stolen. Upon the potential victim contacting the scammer, the scammer responds by asking for details pertaining to the potential victim's circumstances and location under the pretense of ensuring that the pet would have a suitable home. By determining the location of the victim, the scammer ensures he is far enough from the victim so as to not allow the buyer to physically view the pet.

Should the scammer be questioned, as the advertisement claimed a location initially, the scammer will claim work circumstances having forced him to relocate. This forces a situation whereby all communication is either via email, telephone normally untraceable numbers and SMS. Upon the victim deciding to adopt or purchase the pet, a courier has to be used which is in reality part of the scam. If this is for an adopted pet, typically the victim is expected to pay some fee such as insurance, food or shipping. Payment is via MoneyGram, Western Union or money mules' bank accounts where other victims have been duped into work from home scams.

Numerous problems are encountered in the courier phase of the scam. The crate is too small and the victim has the option of either purchasing a crate with air conditioning or renting one while also paying a deposit, typically called a caution or cautionary fee. The victim may also have to pay for insurance if such fees have not been paid yet. If the victim pays these fees, the pet may become sick and a veterinarian's assistance is sought for which the victim has to repay the courier. Additionally, the victim may be asked to pay for a health certificate needed to transport the pet, and for kennel fees during the recuperation period.

The further the scam progresses, the more similar are the fictitious fees to those of typical scams. It is not uncommon to see customs or like fees being claimed if such charges fit into the scam plot. Numerous scam websites may be used for this scam. This scam has been linked to the classical scams in that the fictitious couriers used, as are also used in other types of scams such as lotto scams. One of the variants is the Romance Scam , a money-for-romance angle.

The scammer claims an interest in the victim, and posts pictures of an attractive person. In other cases, they claim they're trapped in a foreign country and need assistance to return, to escape imprisonment by corrupt local officials, to pay for medical expenses due to an illness contracted abroad, and so on. Scams often involve meeting someone on an online match-making service. When a victim travels to a meeting, it can have deadly consequence as in the case of Jette Jacobs, 67, from Australia. Her body was discovered on February 9, , under mysterious circumstances, two days after meeting up with Omokoh.

Omokoh has fled back to Nigeria. After questioning in Nigeria, Omokoh was arrested. He was found to have had 32 fake online identities. He was never charged with murder, due to the inability to prove he had a hand in the death of Jette Jacobs, only fraud charges. One variant of advanced-fee fraud popular in India is mobile tower installation fraud. The fraudster uses Internet classified websites and print media to lure the public for installation of mobile towers on their property.

The fraudster also creates fake websites to appear legitimate. The victims part with their money in pieces to the fraudster on account of the Government Service Tax, government clearance charges, bank charges, transportation charges, survey fee etc. The Indian government is issuing public notices in media to spread awareness among the public and warn them against mobile tower fraudsters. Other scams involve unclaimed property, also called " bona vacantia " in the United Kingdom.

Fraudulent emails and letters claiming to be from this department have been reported, informing the recipient they are the beneficiary of a legacy but requiring the payment of a fee before sending more information or releasing the money. In one variant of fraud, an alleged hitman writes to someone explaining he has been targeted to kill them. He tells them he knows the allegations against them are false, and asks for money so the target can receive evidence of the person who ordered the hit.

Another variant of advanced fee fraud is known as a pigeon drop. This is a confidence trick in which the mark , or " pigeon ", is persuaded to give up a sum of money in order to secure the rights to a larger sum of money, or more valuable object. In reality, the scammers make off with the money and the mark is left with nothing. In the process, the stranger actually a confidence trickster puts his money with the mark's money in an envelope, briefcase, or bag which the mark is then apparently entrusted with; it is actually switched for a bag full of newspaper or other worthless material.

Through various theatrics, the mark is given the opportunity to leave with the money without the stranger realizing. In reality, the mark would be fleeing from his own money, which the con man still has or has handed off to an accomplice. Some scammers will go after the victims of previous scams; known as a reloading scam. For example, they may contact a victim saying they can track and apprehend the scammer and recover the money lost by the victim, for a price. Or they may say a fund has been set up by the Nigerian government to compensate victims of fraud, and all that is required is proof of the loss, personal information, and a processing and handling fee.

The recovery scammers obtain lists of victims by buying them from the original scammers. Estimates of the total losses due to the scam are uncertain and vary widely, since many people may be too embarrassed to admit that they were gullible enough to be scammed to report the crime. Other victims lose wealth and friends, become estranged from family members, deceive partners, get divorced, or commit criminal offenses in the process of either fulfilling their "obligations" to the scammers or obtaining more money.

Her curiosity was piqued because she actually had a grandfather whom her family had lost touch with, and whose initials matched those given in the email. She sent hundreds of thousands of dollars over a period of more than two years, despite her family, bank staff and law enforcement officials all urging her to stop. They also may be concerned that relatives might see it as a sign of declining mental capacity, and they are afraid to lose their independence.

Victims can be enticed to borrow or embezzle money to pay the advance fees, believing that they will shortly be paid a much larger sum and be able to refund what they misappropriated. Crimes committed by victims include credit-card fraud , check kiting , and embezzlement. While a court affirmed that various Nigerian government officials including a governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria were directly or indirectly involved, and that Nigerian government officials could be sued in U.

Some scams involve even more serious crimes, such as kidnapping or murder. One such case, in , involves Osamai Hitomi, a Japanese businessman who was lured to Johannesburg , South Africa and kidnapped on September 26, Seven people were ultimately arrested. The captors released Raca after they became nervous. The international nature of the crime, combined with the fact that many victims do not want to admit that they bought into an illegal activity, has made tracking down and apprehending these criminals difficult. Furthermore, the government of Nigeria has been slow to take action, leading some investigators to believe that some Nigerian government officials are involved in some of these scams.

Despite this, there have been some recent successes in apprehending and prosecuting these criminals. In , fifty-two suspects were arrested in Amsterdam after an extensive raid, after which almost no emails were reported being sent by local internet service providers. Due to the increased use of the scam on the Internet, it has been used as a plot device in many films , television shows and books. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from scams. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. An Opte Project visualization of routing paths through a portion of the Internet.

Internet fraud , List of email scams , and phishing. Internet fraud at all-time high". Retrieved June 22, United States Department of State. Archived from the original on June 14, Retrieved June 23, Archived from the original on Archived from the original on February 9, Archived from the original on February 13, Archived from the original on June 28, The New York Times. Mikkelson February 1, Principal Agent of the French Police until Archived from the original on January 4, Retrieved January 4, — via Canada. Old Scam, New Twist".


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Retrieved 30 December While a court affirmed that various Africaan government officials including a governor of the Central Bank african prince Nigeria were directly or indirectly involved, and that Nigerian government officials could be sued in Cating. Some victims dating site back multiple times in an effort to collect all the details. Univ of Wisconsin Press. Wikimedia Commons has media related to scams.
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