Biscoe muslim

Biscoe muslim

biscoe muslim

Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. Saints and Misfits is a “timely and authentic” (School Library Journal, starred review) debut novel that feels like a modern day My So-Called Life starring a Muslim teen. There are three kinds of people in my world: 1. Saints, those special people moving the world forward. Sometimes you glaze. English Composition: The Act Or Process Of Composing Or A Piece Of Writing - English Composition II Composition is “the act or process of composing or a piece of writing” (Webster). The principal told me a group of insurance surveyors would also be visiting. Although he did not actively pursue conversions as much as his missionary backers would have liked, Tyndale-Biscoe was a convinced imperialist and supporter of the India Defence League. When they arrived, they began vandalising the building, and then set it on fire. Muslim date site - we know how difficult it can be to find true love, but our dating sites can help you to find the person you are looking how to find the best online dating sites using the best online dating sites to find a partner in life is one of several options explored by simple people today. Burges, on 2 November and had four children. Inthe Rev P S Royston came out as bishop. He was biscoe by John Hind who served from to muslimm retirement in By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Bisxoe Policy. The CMS mission, however, continued to be responsible for work in Shanghai, where muskim had strange dating sims headquarters office for all its work in China. Whether he won many viscoe disciples on these hazardous Tibetan treks is not known. Matters bicoe made worse because since the First World War CMS had carried the cost muslim the adverse rate of exchange between the pound and rupee, which had mjslim muslim into these large overdrafts.

Thousands of migratory birds come to Hokersar from Siberia and other regions in the winter season. Migratory birds from Siberia and Central Asia use wetlands in Kashmir as their transitory camps between September and October and again around spring. These wetlands play a vital role in sustaining a large population of wintering, staging and breeding birds. It is the most accessible and well-known of Kashmir's wetlands which include Hygam, Shalibug and Mirgund.

A record number of migratory birds have visited Hokersar in recent years. Birds found in Hokersar—Migratory ducks and geese which include brahminy duck , tufted duck , gadwall , garganey , greylag goose , mallard , common merganser , northern pintail , common pochard , ferruginous pochard , red-crested pochard , ruddy shelduck , northern shoveller , common teal , and Eurasian wigeon. The valley is surrounded by the Himalayas on all sides.

Winters are cool, with daytime temperature averaging to 2. Moderate to heavy snowfall occurs in winter and the highway connecting Srinagar with the rest of India faces frequent blockades due to icy roads and avalanches. Summers are warm with a July daytime average of Spring is the wettest season while autumn is the driest. The highest temperature reliably recorded is Srinagar is one of several places that have been called the " Venice of the East ". Wular Lake is one of the largest fresh water lakes in Asia. Srinagar has some Mughal gardens , forming a part of those laid by the Mughal emperors across the Indian subcontinent.

The Sher Garhi Palace houses administrative buildings from the state government. The Shankaracharya Temple which lies on a hill top in the middle of the city, besides the Kheer Bhawani Temple are important Hindu temples in the city. The Srinagar district along with the adjoining Budgam and Ganderbal districts forms the Srinagar Parliamentary seat.

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Srinagar's city government attracted brief international attention in March when it announced a mass poisoning program aimed at eliminating the city's population of stray dogs. In a survey conducted by an NGO, it was found that some residents welcomed this program, saying the city was overrun by dogs, while critics contended that more humane methods should be used to deal with the animals.

The situation has become alarming with local news reports coming up at frequent intervals highlighting people, especially children being mauled by street dogs. As of census Srinagar urban agglomeration had 1,, population. The sex ratio in the city area is females per males, whereas in the urban agglomeration it is per 1, Hindus constitute the second largest religious group representing 2. The remaining population constitutes Sikhs, Buddhist and Jains.

Srinagar International Airport has regular domestic flights to Leh , Jammu , Chandigarh , Delhi and Mumbai and occasional international flights. An expanded terminal capable of handling both domestic and international flights was inaugurated on 14 February with Air India Express flights to Dubai. Hajj flights also operate from this airport to Saudi Arabia. It takes approximately 9 minutes and 30 seconds for train to cross the tunnel. It is the longest rail tunnel in India. This railway system, proposed in , is not expected to connect the Indian railway network until at the earliest, with a cost overrun of 55 billion INR.

There are proposals to develop a metro system in the city. In December , the m cable car allowing people to travel to the shrine of the Sufi saint Hamza Makhdoom on Hari Parbat was unveiled. Whilst popular since the 7th century, water transport is now mainly confined to Dal Lake , where shikaras wooden boats are used for local transport and tourism. There are efforts to revive transportation on the River Jhelum. Like the state of Jammu and Kashmir , Srinagar too has a distinctive blend of cultural heritage. Holy places in and around the city depict the historical cultural and religious diversity of the city as well as the Kashmir valley.

The oldest grave in the cemetery is that of a British colonel from the 9th Lancers of and the cemetery is valued for the variety of persons buried there which provides an insight into the perils faced by British colonisers in India. It is one of the oldest among the National Institutes of Technology that were established during 2nd Five year plan. Other educational institutions are:. The city is home to the Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium , where international cricket matches have been played. Since then no international matches have been played in the stadium due to the security situation although the situation has now improved quite considerably.

The city has a golf course named Royal Springs Golf Course, Srinagar located on the banks of Dal lake, which is considered as one of the best golf courses of India. There are certain other sports being played but those are away from the main city like in Pahalgam Water rafting , Gulmarg skiing. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the municipality. For its namesake district, see Srinagar district. For other uses, see Srinagar disambiguation. City in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

The missions also led the way in building and architecture, printing and medicine. In the s the Dahomian wars interrupted European mission work around Abeokuta, but by that time the local Christians were fully capable of continuing unaided and the Church grew. In following a successful private expedition up the Niger, Samuel Crowther was commissioned to establish an African mission to evangelise Africans. In Yoruba country the Christians from Sierra Leone had been returning to their own families.

Here they came as missionaries, strangers to the country, though of the same peoples. CMS supported the work with a small grant, but urged Crowther to make the Church self-supporting. In he came to England to be consecrated Bishop of the Niger Territories, with eventual responsibility for the whole area from the Nupe country in the north to the Delta States in the south. A special endowment fund was set up to support the bishopric.

For Crowther both academic and practical education were of the greatest value in evangelism. He centred the mission stations on schools, and at the same time emphasised the need for missionaries and converts to exercise direct Christian influence on the laws and customs of the people. It was difficult for Crowther always to recruit the type of men he wanted, for although the work swiftly grew there was no increased support from CMS either in money or men.

By , with growing commercial interest in West Africa, there was friction between the European traders and the African missionaries. There was a ferment of new ideas in Europe. Venn was dead and Crowther no longer had support from Salisbury Square. Hutchinson, who had taken over Venn's responsibility for the Niger mission, tried to introduce European supervision and sent out young missionaries to report on the state of the mission. Years of controversy followed, exacerbated by the impetuous stubbornness of the English missionaries who were trained in new ways as were the fresh group of Secretaries in London.

Confidence between Crowther and CMS was lost. In J A Robinson was appointed secretary of the Niger mission which was by then administered by a committee at Onitsha of which Bishop Crowther was chairman. At a meeting in Robinson attempted to usurp the chairman's power over the clergy and Crowther resigned. The estrangement between the Society and the Delta church was to continue for more than thirty years, although the first signs of reconciliation were to come in with formal approval of its constitution as an independent church.

Not until was there an African successor to Crowther. Hill's jurisdiction extended over the whole of modern Nigeria and at the very end of the century, his successor, Bishop Tugwell led a small party some miles from the coast near Lagos to Zaria in the north. This was the beginning of the church in that largely Muslim area. Over the next fifty years in Nigeria the Society's role changed. The government played an increasing part in the financing of education, while as dioceses were created the Society gradually handed over its authority to the indigenous church.

For the long-established work in Western Nigeria it was a time of consolidation. CMS increasingly worked with others, particularly the Methodists, in education and shared in supporting the United Missionary College at Ibadan. Medical work was not so prominent. The hospital at Ado Ekiti opened in Archdeacon Dennis translated the Bible into Ibo, producing a Union version in to replace the Onitsha version till then used in the schools; Henry Procter translated the Book of Common Prayer into the Brass language.

For CMS however there was greater interest in the development of the Bookshop at Onitsha started with its branches at Egbu Owerri from and Port Harcourt There was also medical work at Iyi Enu from the s, a small hospital being opened in The diocese on the Niger was created in Integrating the diocese took time, skill and patience but by a constitution was approved. The work in Northern Nigeria expanded in four areas.

Work amongst the Hausa was pioneered from at Zaria by Dr Walter Miller, a man of vision and a brilliant linguist. From it gained a series of recruits from a group of Cambridge University men, the Hausa Band. Guy Bullen, who proved a leader of sound judgement and a patient negotiator developed the work at Wusasa, where another member of the Band, Dr Norman Cook, was in charge of the medical mission and the building of the hospital from Another group of missionaries from Cambridge, the Cambridge University Missionary Party, had been working on the Bauchi plateau since A new station among the Angass at Kabwir was opened in and in the first converts were baptised.

It remained a small mission however and in January the work was handed over to the Sudan United Mission. Work among the Nupe began in at Bida and extended to Katcha in Progress was affected by the isolation of the mission and the lack of reinforcements, but the first Nupe was ordained in The Bassa district was a region where the Aladura movement made great impact and Miss K E Ritsert and Miss Christine Matthews were transferred from Lokoja to Kpata in to work among those influenced by it.

They started medical work. By there were about eight thousand worshippers in the district. He visited Dingaan, the Zulu chief, in and obtained permission for missionaries to be sent to them. Owen and his wife and sister then journeyed to Dingaan's town arriving in August Within months however Dingaan's killing of the Boers abruptly terminated the mission. They agreed to try to work at Mosita, a site north of Grahamstown, which had been occupied earlier and then abandoned by the Paris Missionary Society. But that Society sent out fresh missionaries and CMS then decided to withdraw entirely from the country.

He and other CMS missionaries had been forced to leave Ethiopia and Krapf decided to attempt to reach the inland tribes from the East Coast. John Rebmann joined him in and they established a mission at Rabai, embarking on several expeditions, which were to bring them incidental fame as explorers, not least as the European discoverers of Mount Kilimanjaro. Krapf returned to Germany in and for twenty years Rebmann was to work on alone, studying the language and cared for, after he became blind, by a small band of Christians.

In a fresh start was made. The British government sent Sir Bartle Frere to negotiate a treaty with Zanzibar for the suppression of the slave-trade. Land was purchased for an industrial colony named Frere Town and work began in Progress was slow but in work began to spread to the interior in Taita and Chagga country. Soon afterwards, however, German annexations in Tanganyika led to opposition from the local people and cut off communications. As a result Frere Town and Rabai remained the two centres of the Kenya mission for the remainder of the century.

There were many missionary societies and Christian denominations working in Kenya and as their work grew it led to overlapping of effort. A series of inter-mission conferences was held from seeking church unity and a federation of societies. The former was not achieved but in a conference at Kikuyu appointed a representative council of which the main members were Anglicans, Scottish Episcopalians, and Methodists. The alliance aimed to work towards a united ministry based on united training, but its most enduring contribution was in education - in the Alliance High School at Kikuyu which opened in and to which a CMS missionary, Carey Francis, was appointed headmaster in CMS opened a hospital at Maseno in , but in both medicine and education the government was so vigorous in its policies that individual institutions were not so important in mission development as they were in other countries in which CMS worked.

The missionaries did play an important part in political and social problems however. Issues such as compulsory unpaid labour on public works, the emancipation of women and girls, and the ownership of land particularly relating to the discovery of gold in the Kavirondo reserve were all taken up on behalf of the Africans by church leaders and missionaries, of whom Archdeacon W E Owen was the outstanding CMS exponent throughout the s and s. The King of the Baganda, the Kabaka Mutesa, had received Stanley, as he had the earlier explorers Speke and Grant and listened to their account of Christianity.

Now he sent a message that he would welcome white men in his country. The Society's established work at Frere Town gave them added incentive to accept the offer and preparations began. In a party of eight men was sent out. Smith was killed that December and Wilson remained alone for a year until Alexander Mackay, who had been detained ill at the coast, joined him. As usual in pioneering days, education and religion went hand in hand. Mackay working alone, for Wilson had returned to England was teacher, evangelist, builder and printer.

The early Christians were known as 'readers' and by the first translations of parts of the Bible were circulating, printed on Mackay's own press. In Mutesa died and his son Mwanga turned against the Christians. His bitter persecution culminated in about 30 of the pages in his court being burned alive. Years of religious wars and political unrest followed and the Christians were scattered. Yet in suffering the church found a vital and infectious faith. When Bishop Alfred Tucker came out in , he was greeted by thousands of Christians and a flourishing church.

The century was to end with a decade of expansion. The first Ugandan priests were ordained in , the Luganda Bible was completed in and in the diocese of Uganda was formed. That same year Dr Albert Cook began his long career at Mengo hospital and, of far greater significance, Apolo Kivebulaya, who had been taught at one time by Mackay, was sent as a missionary to Mboga and began his long ministry in the Congo. The twentieth century continued the expansion of the s.

A maternity training school founded and run by Mrs Albert Cook opened in Ashton Bond opened a hospital at Toro in , though it was forced to close as an economy measure in Medical work at N'gora started in and a leprosy settlement at Ongino was set up in , both still flourishing in the s. Because the Anglican church was fully organised the responsibility for the schools, including boarding schools, lay with the diocesan council which worked in co-operation with the African chiefs and without government supervision.

For clergy training there was Mukono Theological College, which had begun as a small divinity class at Kampala and moved to Mukono in The s were notable for the Revival Movement which had begun among the African staff in Gahini hospital in Rwanda. Bishop Stuart invited a team from Gahini to lead a convention at Mukono and this led to a campaign of evangelism in to mark the Diamond Jubilee of the CMS mission. Dr Joe Church was seconded from Rwanda to organise and develop a "true holiness movement in Uganda based exclusively on the Bible".

There was a danger in the early s that some of the converts might have separated themselves from the local churches but the patience of Bishop Stuart and others prevented a split. The first station, Mpwapwa, occupied in acted as a support station for the supply route from the coast. The main areas allocated to CMS were in the Usagara and Ugogo districts and in a second station was opened at Mamboya. The early years were not easy for although the German administration was not unfriendly, the mission did not attract the same interest as the Kenya and Uganda missions further north.

Even the division of the diocese of Eastern Equatorial Africa in left the missionaries with remote episcopal supervision and encouragement. In work began at Berega and Mvumi, spreading to Buigiri the following year. The work at Mpwapwa was moved to Kongwa in There followed some years of increasing response to the Gospel, but on the outbreak of the First World War all the missionaries were interned. They were able to return to work in but then had to face reduction in numbers during the retrenchment of the s. It had been recognised for some years that a separate diocese was needed for Tanganyika.

As there were a number of Australian missionaries working in the country it was proposed that CMS Australia should nominate and help to fund a bishop. In George Chambers, General Secretary to CMS Australia, was chosen and the Australian society took responsibility for the financial support of the entire mission and diocese. Despite financial worries and shortage of staff the work grew. The divinity school and teacher-training institute at Kongwa, which had been established in with T B R Westgate as its first principal, moved to Dodoma in , where it was served for some years by a CMS Bookshop.

From work spread along the shores of Lake Tanganyika. One of Lionel Bakewell's assistants in the work was Yohana Omari, who was later to become the first African bishop of the diocese. Hospitals were opened at Kilimatinde in and Mvumi in and infant welfare centres were introduced. By the time Bishop Chambers retired in the number of missionaries and African clergy had greatly increased, while in the Western part of the country there was a thriving young church of about 10, adherents. They were sent at first to Mengo hospital in Uganda, but in December made an exploratory visit to Rwanda.

The CMS committee in London were unable to agree to this expansion of work because of the lack of funds, but the two doctors began to raise funds independently and by were able to guarantee support both for four years' work and for a hospital. There were some remaining difficulties over staffing and finally the Kigezi district of South West Uganda was suggested and agreed as a place to start rather than beginning in Rwanda itself. In the CMS committee in London accepted the doctors' offer, the work to be accountable to the Uganda missionary committee. In the early days support was given and organised by 'Friends of Ruanda', but in the Ruanda Council was formed as a CMS committee in charge of the administration of the work.

In it took full financial responsibility for the mission, though it was not separated from the CMS mission in Uganda until The Sharps and Stanley Smiths arrived at Kabale in Kigezi in , but it was seven years later when they actually moved into Rwanda and settled at Gahini. Medical work was welcomed from the start and hospitals were opened at Kabale, Gahini, Kigeme and Shyira, while a leprosy treatment centre was established at Bunyonyi on Bwama Island. In it was agreed that work should begin in Burundi with three centres Buhiga, Matana and Ibuye.

As in Rwanda the aim was to establish a church, hospital and school in each place. Ecumenical relations with other missions were good and in the Alliance of Protestant Missions in Ruanda-Urundi was formed. This co-operation was particularly notable in translation work in which Harold Guillebaud was the outstanding figure. By there was a rapidly growing church. A large proportion of the inhabitants were Roman Catholic, and French continued to be the island's official language. A small Anglican church was established in the s but it was not until that a separate diocese for Mauritius and the Seychelles Islands was set up.

By nearly had been baptised, about half that number returning to India. In , the Rev P S Royston came out as bishop. He had had long previous experience as chaplain and missionary in the island and in India, and he encouraged the development of a CMS native church council on the system he had practised in India. Although the Society found Mauritius a useful outpost of its India missions, its development was hampered by the dominant position of the Roman Catholic church and in CMS decided to withdraw. The work was handed over to the church in Mauritius in Missionary work in Madagascar had been started by the London Missionary Society in and many converts were made.

During the reign of Queen Ranavalona I , however, there was bitter persecution of the Christians and the missionaries were driven out. But difficulties arose between the three Societies over the geographical division of their work and not least over the proposed bishop for Madagascar; and in the CMS mission was wound up. Work in the Seychelles was at first considered a branch of the East Africa mission and concentrated on an industrial school and settlement for liberated African slaves at Capucin Mountain. As the slave trade died, however, it became less useful and in the missionaries were called home and the work was handed over to the Seychelles branch of the Mauritius Diocesan Society.

Llewellyn Gwynne, Dr Frank Harpur and Archibald Shaw were members of the pioneer party which aimed to reach the pagan areas of the south, but it was not until that they were allowed to enter the area. Funds that had been collected in memory of General Gordon were used for the mission and the first station, Malek was opened in As far as the development of the church was concerned the Sudan mission was considered by CMS as two distinctly different areas. The Northern Sudan mission was closely linked to Egypt and remained in the diocese of Egypt and the Sudan from its inauguration in until Sudan was made a diocese in its own right in Six years later Bishop Leonard Kitching was consecrated first bishop of the Upper Nile diocese, whose jurisdiction covered the whole Elgon mission area.

It was not until his death in that the Southern Sudan was restored to the diocese of Egypt and the Sudan. The difference between the north and south of the country is also reflected in the ways in which the missionaries worked and in the results of their evangelism. In the north the work was mainly among Muslims, missionary activity was restricted and the church was small in numbers and largely identified with a few missionary institutions. Medical work centred on the hospital at Omdurman, though from there was also a dispensary in the north of the city at Abu Rof.

In the s there was added a baby welfare clinic, children's home and girls' elementary school. There were also girls' schools in Omdurman itself, Atbara where work had begun in and, from , in Wad Medani. In the s the government asked CMS to open schools in the Nuba Mountains and they chose two centres, Salara in and Katcha in These schools were taken over by the Sudanese government in In the south of the country there was a similar emphasis on education and medicine but the work was among the tribal peoples.

The mission suffered from a shortage of staff and money in the s and s and found it difficult to fulfil some of the government's requests regarding education. All the stations had elementary vernacular schools for boys and girls but there was only one secondary school. This was the Nugent school, which was begun at Juba in and moved to Loka in The best pupils from all the mission schools were sent to Nugent either to the school itself or to its technical department.

By the late s the mission and church were growing. The Revival spread from Uganda to the south of Sudan and by there were approximately 18, Christians. In that year the first ordinations took place, one of the ordinands being Daniel Deng who in was to become the first Sudanese Anglican bishop. The latter was carried further by Henry Martyn during his brief stay in Persia in CMS had a vision of the ancient Eastern churches, then under Muslim Turkish rule, being revived and used as instruments for the conversion of the Muslims they lived amongst.

The actual invitation to work towards this came from a Roman Catholic in Malta. In William Jowett later to be a Secretary at headquarters was sent out on a mission of enquiry to visit the oriental churches and, if possible, to start local Bible Societies to print and circulate the Scriptures in the vernacular. He made his headquarters at Malta and was able to establish a printing-press there. In men were sent to Egypt to make similar contacts with the Coptic church and in they attempted to reach the ancient church in Ethiopia.

Decrees by the Turkish government against the circulation of the Scriptures had little effect, but Orthodox church leaders who at first welcomed the contact were not influenced by it, and the work did not fulfil the Society's expectations. The work in Malta and Ethiopia ceased in the s and the first mission in Egypt Cairo was relinquished in In a second mission of enquiry was sent out, prompted by a request from the bishop in Jerusalem Samuel Gobat, a CMS missionary and from British consuls in Syria and Mosul. The enquiry led to the Society's decision to start work in Palestine.

In the Rev F A Klein a brilliant linguist was sent to Jerusalem, and other men soon followed, opening several stations, chief of which was Nazareth. The work provoked much opposition and for a time was much reduced, but a conference on Missions to Muslims called by CMS in London in gave a great impetus to their activity. Educational work was extended, medical work and work amongst women began. The statistics for the end of the century reflect this development for by there were 59 missionaries in Palestine of whom 28 were single women and three were doctors.

The winning of the Crimean War of enabled the British and allied governments to force from the Sultan of Turkey a decree which appeared to secure religious liberty throughout the Ottoman Empire. Two missionaries were sent to Constantinople and for a time carried on remarkable work with a number of converts. Continued strong opposition by the Turkish authorities to work amongst the Muslim population made evangelism practically impossible. By the s, when CMS was additionally handicapped by a financial crisis, it was decided to withdraw leaving the work to the American mission and the work officially closed in In work was also begun in Baghdad but this latter station was given up at the end of the First World War.

The Anglican Church in Egypt grew as a partnership between the missionaries and the British expatriates who had built churches and formed small congregations in Cairo and elsewhere. These groups came under the jurisdiction of the Anglican bishop in Jerusalem but in Llewellyn Gwynne, a CMS missionary, was appointed assistant bishop of Khartoum. In Egypt and the Sudan were made into a separate diocese with Gwynne as bishop until his retirement in The Egyptian membership of the Anglican Church was small because CMS preserved its original intention from not to proselytise the Coptic or Evangelical churches but to aim at the evangelisation of the non-Christian population.

Cairo was a strong centre with not only schools for boys and girls but with the renowned Old Cairo Hospital which opened in under Dr Frank Harpur. In a book depot opened in Cairo. Its circulation spread far beyond Egypt and it was still being published in the s. Thornton died in and Gairdner continued on his own until when Constance Padwick came as his assistant. All three considered Christian literature work an essential way to advance evangelism in a country of ancient culture and wide literacy. He settled at Julfa, the Armenian suburb of Isfahan and after a year persuaded CMS to let him stay longer, so that he could revise and complete Henry Martyn's translation work.

After two years he had some enquirers seeking baptism and the Armenians had asked for a school. A short time later there was a famine and he organised relief work helped by money sent to him from Germany. As a result it was not until that he finally returned to England on leave, when the obvious support for his work together with his own enthusiasm led the Society formally to adopt the mission. As in other countries medical work proved a firm base for evangelism.

Miss Mary Bird pioneered work amongst women, opening a small dispensary in Isfahan in Dr Donald Carr carried on Hoernle's work in Julfa from and three years later the first woman doctor in Iran, Dr Emmeline Stuart, joined him to open and run the women's hospital. In that year too work began in Kerman and within two years an offer of funding for a hospital was received. He died in after 34 years service. Iranian dispensers had worked in Yezd from onwards and the work was officially taken on in Work at Shiraz, the other main centre began in At the turn of the century there was a small but dedicated group of missionaries serving the nucleus of an Iranian church through translation and literary work, school and medical missions.

The outbreak of the First World War led to the enforced evacuation of CMS missionaries in but they returned within eighteen months and after the end of the war there was growing contact with Christians in the north of the country. An industrial school for women and girls was begun in Isfahan in , which assisted the revival of indigenous Iranian crafts. From the late s there was increasing government pressure on missionary institutions and in the Stuart Memorial College and nearly all the schools were closed.

The Behesht-Ayin school at Isfahan and the Mehr-Ayin school at Shiraz which had Iranian principals survived as private schools for a time, though the Shiraz school was sold to the government in A hospital in a private house had been opened in and work spread to Mosul in , where another hospital was built. Evangelism was directed towards the Shi'a Muslims but converts were few. At the outbreak of the First World War two of the doctors were interned for a short time prior to all the missionaries leaving for Egypt where they worked during the war years.

In the needs of retrenchment forced the Society to withdraw from its small mission and the property was sold. In the church there was some friction between the decisions of CMS locally and the Palestine Native Church Council which was rightly developing as an independent body. Some Arab pastors and their congregations appealed to London against the autocracy of the mission. Some of the women missionaries who were financially independent of the Society and who disagreed with mission policy resigned.

This unhappy state of affairs was made worse by the outbreak of the First World War and the enforced departure of all the missionaries, who did not return until In Wilson Cash the mission secretary in Egypt was appointed secretary for Palestine as well. Cash's appointment and visits of delegations from London in and gave the mission a fresh start. The delegation recommended closer co-operation with other societies and approved the setting up in Jerusalem of the Newman School of Missions, a school of languages and Islamic studies for missionaries, whose director was a CMS missionary, Eric Bishop.

In education the mission was advised to concentrate on the Bishop Gobat School for boys and the Jerusalem Girls' College. The latter had as its headmistress in the s Miss Winifred Coate, who, after the proclamation of the state of Israel in became well-known for her work in the Arab refugee camps in Zerka. By a community of baptised Indians had been gathered and the work prospered on a small scale. The first bishop of Rupert's Land was appointed in with oversight of a vast diocese with a thinly scattered population. The next year the first Indian clergyman Henry Budd, was ordained and made many converts among his countrymen on the Saskatchewan River.

In a new centre at Moose Factory on Hudson Bay was opened and in Archdeacon Hunter undertook a great pioneer journey of miles beyond the Arctic Circle, opening up a vast new area of work. By there were five Cree clergy as well as the missionaries and the newly formed dominion of Canada extended its rule over the entire area. This new impetus led to the founding of stations in Hudson Bay and Saskatchewan and rapid growth of the church among the Indians on the Yukon River. Meanwhile in another new field had been entered, miles north of Vancouver, when William Duncan was sent to work among the Tsimshean Indians in and around Fort Simpson.

The discovery of gold in the Caribou in with the consequent influx of settlers, and the difficulties found by the young converts surrounded by non-Christians made Duncan decide to set up a Christian settlement elsewhere and in the mission transferred to Metlakatla. By the late s this flourishing industrial settlement comprised about people, and in spite of a controversy which led to some of the original settlers moving to Alaska, the church on the Pacific coast spread along the rivers into the interior and among the islands off the coast.

Thirty years later as the centenary of CMS work in Canada approached, the Society began to bring to an end its work in that country, by handing over its responsibilities to the Church of England in Canada. There had been a Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society in Canada which worked among the Canadian Indians and also supported British societies' overseas missions, but had no overseas missions of its own. From there was also a separate and autonomous Church Missionary Association called the Canadian CMS, which directly recruited and supported missionaries to work in overseas fields under CMS.

It was therefore appropriate for it to take on the work amongst its own indigenous people. The official handover and CMS withdrawal took place at the centenary celebrations at Winnipeg in the autumn of From in Antigua, through William Dawes former governor of Sierra Leone , CMS had been involved in helping to provide schools for the slaves on the plantations. The Society's founders and supporters in England also took part in the long parliamentary struggle which led in to the passing of the Act to abolish slavery in British possessions.

Despite the unpopularity of the Act amongst the white planters many missionary agencies seized the opportunity of government support to expand their work and CMS began an extensive mission. In the Society had in the West Indies 13 ordained missionaries, 23 lay agents and seventy schools, while its congregations numbered about Shortage of funds forced a withdrawal about ten years later, but the work was handed over to the colonial church as an active and growing concern. Knowledge of this stimulated English interest in China and in the London Missionary Society sent out Robert Morrison; he died in having failed to penetrate beyond the permitted foreign trading areas.

He was renowned for his journeys in defiance of the Chinese authorities, sailing along the coast, distributing tracts wherever he could. His reports were discouraging, however, and the outbreak of the first Opium War between Britain and China forced his return to England. Ironically it was the Opium War that opened China to the Gospel. By the Treaty of Nanking in five Chinese ports were opened to Europeans including missionaries ; and Hong Kong was ceded to Britain. Many missionary societies immediately started work in mainland China.

Sundar Singh's mother took him to sit at the feet of a sadhu , an ascetic holy man, who lived in the jungle some miles away, while also sending him to Ewing Christian High School, Ludhiana , to learn English. Sundar Singh's mother died when he was fourteen. In anger, he burned a Bible page by page while his friends watched. Sundar felt that his religious pursuits in Sikhism and the questioning of Christian and Hindu priests left him without ultimate meaning. Sundar resolved to kill himself by throwing himself upon a railroad track. He asked that whosoever is the 'True God' would appear before him, or else he would kill himself; that very night he had a vision of Jesus.

Sundar announced to his father, Sher Singh, that henceforth he would get converted into the missionary work of Christ. His father officially rejected him, and his brother Rajender Singh attempted to poison him. He was not poisoned just once but a number of times. People of that area threw snakes in his house, but he was rescued from mistreatment by the help of a nearby British Jesus Christ impersonator. On his sixteenth birthday, he was publicly baptised as a Christian in the parish church in Simla , [2] in the Himalayan foothills.

Prior to this he had been staying at the Christian Missionary Home at Sabathu , near Simla, serving the leprosy patients there. In October , he set out on his journey as a new Christian, wearing a saffron turban and the saffron robe of a Hindu sadhu, an ascetic devoted to spiritual practice. Singh propagated himself as a sadhu , albeit one within Christianity rather than Hinduism, because he realized Hindus could not be converted in India unless it was in an Indian way. Like Him I will belong to the road, sharing the suffering of my people, eating with those who will give me shelter, and telling all men of the love of God.

After returning to his home village, where he was given an unexpectedly warm welcome, Sundar Singh traveled northward for his mission of converting through the Punjab , over the Bannihal Pass into Kashmir , and then back through Muslim Afghanistan and into the brigand -infested North-West Frontier and Baluchistan. He was referred to as "the apostle with the bleeding feet" by the Christian communities of the north. He suffered arrest and stoning for his beliefs, and experienced mystical encounters.

In , he crossed the frontier of Tibet , where he was appalled by the living conditions. He was stoned as he bathed in cold water because it was believed that "holy men never washed. In he went to Bombay , hoping to board a ship to visit Palestine but was refused a permit, and had to return to the north. He realized during his stay in missions that Western civilization had become the antithesis of original Christian values. He was disillusioned with the materialism and colonialism of western society and tried to forge an Indian identity for Indian church.

He used to lament that Indian Christians adopt British customs, literature and dresses which have nothing to do with Christianity and Christ. According to his biographers, he did not form close relationships with fellow students, meeting them only at meal times and designated prayer sessions. He was ostracised for being "different". Although Singh had been baptised by an Anglican priest, he was ignorant of the ecclesiastical culture and conventions of Anglicanism.


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Boys and girls of Tyndale Biscoe School in Srinagar